Bianculli, AC () Negotiating Trade Liberalization in Argentina and Chile: When Fulquet, G () El Proyecto Educativo Para El MERCOSUR Y Los Debates En Torno . Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. . Journals A-Z. editing, and Michelle Furman for her excellent design work. Joseph S. Tulchin resistance of Mercosur countries, particularly Brazil and Argentina: the launching Red de Investigaciones Económicas del Mercosur, Edificio Mercosur,. Piso 3. Alaska, Arizona (a minimum of 10 US citizens is required, the majority of them . Tucson: University of Arizona Press. “Etnografía del Budismo Zen Argentino: Ritual, Cuerpo y Poder en la “Nuevas religiones japonesas en el Mercosur: La Transnacionalización Ignorada. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.
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Construction and construction-related engineering services.
This approach may reduce leverage in future multilateral as well as preferential negotiations, as shown by intra-Mercosur negotiations and other inter-regional preferential negotiations, such as that between Mercosur and the European Union. Where does Argentina fit?
This liberalization drive was led by the Economy Ministry, headed by the architect of the economic reforms and a former Minister of Foreign Relations Social and healthcare services not included in 1. In that agency produced one of the earliest proposals on services negotiations submitted to the GATT by a developing contracting party. Placing bargaining or strategic considerations in a secondary place as opposed to unilateral reforms may be justified on efficiency grounds.
In effect, during these years Argentina entered into an ambitious process of reform in which economic institutions were overhauled. According to various testimonies, meetings organized to gather information to build the Argentine offer frequently ended in a list of demands over domestic policies such as tax policy rather than international negotiations. Insurance services were unbound for Modes 1 and 2 market access and national treatment.
Argentina fits in this category, since it was both an exporter of temperate agricultural products and an active member of the Cairns group.
In effect, while Argentina bound In the case of communications Argentina undertook commitments for approximately two-thirds of the total number of negotiable arbentina. In the five remaining service sectors of which finance and communications stand out in terms of economic significancethe extent of the commitments was comparatively generous in terms of both coverage and depth.
According to this view, one key factor behind trade policy formation would be the relative influence of alternative interest groups. Instead of stating this limitation, the Argentine authorities opted for a horizontal exclusion. Third, when the sectors in which the three countries made commitments are compared, financial services shows the highest coverage ratio, followed by communications and business services.
If the anticipated efficiency gains do not materialize in the future, responsibility should not be assigned to the rules that govern the multilateral trading regime but to the peculiarities of the domestic policy-making process.
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In a few sectors such as business, insurance, construction and construction-related engineering services the pressure of domestic interest groups may have also played a role. On the one hand, the service sector includes a broad range of activities, most of them heavily regulated by different layers of government. The GATS offers largely reflect this phenomenon. Insurance and insurance-related services were either unlisted or listed with restrictions except maritime and air transportation insurance.
Apparently, the post office authority tried unilaterally to bind a competitive regime for postal services in order to end the state monopoly. Number of negotiated commitments na However, UDES had very limited success in mobilizing the private sector or making substantive contributions to the policy-making process.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
A smaller number of private-sector representatives were also interviewed. Moreover, in areas where there was not a single responsible agency such as business servicesthe task force had to engage directly in identifying existing regulations and drawing direct inputs from the private sector such as professional associations. Doing this work ideally required multi-agency teams of highly trained personnel, which were frequently scarce.
Commitments on Market Access: In effect, after the conclusion of the UR the Argentine government made commitments in the context of the negotiations for a protocol on maritime transportation, but agentina negotiations broke down. Number of no-restriction commitments as percentage of number of negotiated commitments.
Section makes a comparative assessment of the coverage and depth of the Argentine list of offers. In contrast to the Mercksur agreement, negotiating the GATS required close co-operation between different governmental agencies and an adequate understanding of a regime still in the making. Mode of supply 3 was restrained by the suspension of new authorizations for establishment removed in In addition, Chile undertook no commitments in construction and construction-related engineering and distribution services.
Argentina submitted an initial offer at the beginning ofmore than two years before the presentation of the final list in Section briefly summarizes the factors that can shape trade policy formation.
We found the case study interesting because it underlines the domestic roots of international trade policy-making and illustrates the way in which the international trade regime can be used instrumentally by national authorities willing to consolidate their policy preferences. In distribution services, Argentina bound with no restrictions retailing and wholesale trade services and franchising. A number of specific market access problems were identified in areas such as construction and consulting especially in Brazilbut a decision was made to take these issues to the sub-regional rather than the multilateral negotiating table.
Thus, the level of concessions made by one country at one point in time may be upheld with the expectation of obtaining larger gains in future bargains. The ratio is also comparatively low in OECD countries except for environmental servicesbut still higher than the Latin American average. In the next section we examine the broad evidence on the content of the Argentine list of offers, before turning to the issue of what may have accounted for the outcome.
Indeed, the available evidence suggests that Argentina undertook broader and deeper commitments than its neighbours, including an outward-oriented country such as Chile.
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Argentina undertook no market access and national treatment commitments in six sectors, namely education; environment; social and healthcare; recreation, culture and sport; transport; and other services. This hypothesis may be useful to understand trade policy-making in normal times, but it may shed less light during periods of stress and deep policy reform.
argenitna Apart from that novelty, services negotiations were characterized by inherent complexities. Commitments on National Treatment. Most negotiators interviewed referred to the limited engagement of the private sector and the lack of technical preparation and understanding of the GATS.
Argentine trade officials had traditionally focused on trade in goods particularly temperate agriculture products and were thus not prepared for undertaking international negotiations eel services.
Immediately after the launching of the Uruguay Round UR inthe Argentine government allocated the functional responsibility for the technical work on services trade to the Economy Ministry, at that time still responsible for the conduct of international trade negotiations. Most restrictions on financial services applied to cross-border trade. Similarly, there may have existed strong bargaining considerations for upholding concessions in order to extract more reciprocal benefits in the future.
The reason for excluding this sector is related to domestic interest groups and, according to some of the negotiators, strategic considerations such as keeping eritorial for future negotiations, including regional preferences under GATS Article V Stancanelli The first academic works dealing with trade in services were published in the second half of the s.
The only sub-sectors unbound were services auxiliary to insurance including broking and agency servicesother financial services and new financial services except national treatment for commercial presence, bound without restrictions. Many public officials interviewed underlined that one of the major obstacles faced was not so much that of gathering the required normative information, but interpreting it in the light of what was necessary to build a national list of commitments.