A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].

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The statement of general textual equivalence in this case is qualitatively the same as that of particular textual equivalence; but there is a difference, namely that it can be quantified. It is convenient, particularly in connection with translation, to regard such a dialect as unmarked.

And this would be a type of linguistic untranslatability. It is, indeed, the pattern which is the language. We might define collocational untranslatability thus: Peeter Torop – – Sign Systems Studies 30 2: Phonemes are the units of articulation which operate as exponents of elements of syllable structure. Among the units of English phonology we find the syllable: For this categorization at least four dimensions have to be considered; viz.

Language, as we said above, is patterned behaviour. J.f.catford steal a horse?

For use as a technical term, Total Translation may best be defined as: In certain circumstances, however, the translator attempts to reproduce at least some features of SL phonology in the TL text — i.

Where number is a system of the Nominal group as in English the terms in the system are themselves sub-groups or sub-classes of the class. The present writer, however, takes full responsibility for the brief and, indeed, oversimplified sketch of linguistic theory given here, which differs from that of Halliday chiefly in its treatment of levels 1,2.


But in The girl at the party was Susan the group theogy the party is rank-shifted. In translation, however, it quite frequently happens that this formal correspondence is departed from, i. The translator supplies the equivalent Mon JUs.

Thus, for example, the traditional transliteration of Sanskrit is into Roman letters — but it is not, strictly, into Latin graphology, for the Roman alphabet has to be supplemented by a number of diacritics to correspond to letter-distinctions in Skt.

The phono- logical forms represented graphologically by crepitement and pepiement are partially alike— in other words, we have here two French lexical items with partially shared exponence.

The following is an example where equivalence can be established to some extent right down to morpheme rank: In phonological lf grapho- logical exponence affix morphemes may be expounded linearly e. Sinclair for this example. A third type of differentiation in trans- lation relates to the rank in a grammatical or phonological hierarchy at which translation equivalence is established.

A Linguistic Theory of Translation

In other words, we also use the term exponent in talking of the relationship between the abstract units and items of grammar and lexis and their realizations in medium form. Thus we may state that an item or class of one language is the formal equivalent of an item or class in another, because the category in question operates in approximately the same way in the structure of higher rank units in both languages; but this in turn, implies that we have established a correspondence between these higher rank units, and this may have tranwlation be done on the basis of highest probability textual equivalence.


A free translation is always unbounded — equivalences shunt up and down the rank ilnguistic, but tend to be at the higher ranks — sometimes between larger units than the sentence. Thanks for telling us about the problem. The following Cyrillic letters, however, present problems: No actual figures for textual equivalence are available, but it is almost certain that the highest-probability English textual equivalents of Kabardian relational preverbs are prepositions.

Maria Sol rated it really liked it May 13, A decision, in any particular case, as to what is functionally relevant in this sense must in our present state of knowledge remain to some extent a matter of opinion. The same is true of contextual meanings.

J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation – PhilPapers

A Scotsman in France went to buy an ice-cream cone at a kiosk. Here, the lexical item sauna appears to have been transferred bodily into the TL.

It must, in other words, draw upon a theory of language — a general linguistic theory.

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